International Journal of Education, Technology and Science <p>The <em>IJETS</em> is a quarterly peer-reviewed international journal aiming to set up a highly qualified international academic platform for both experienced and novice education professionals, researchers, librarians in academic, corporate, and government work settings; and those involved in education and teaching practices all over the world. The IJETS issues are released four times a year; in <strong>March, June, September</strong>, and <strong>December</strong>.</p> <p>The purpose of the <em>IJETS</em> is to foster critical debate about education and teaching globally. The <em>IJETS</em> seeks both to develop new theoretical insights into the education and teaching, and new understandings of the extent and nature of contemporary educational practices in diverse settings. It underlines the significance of discovering and reflecting the interplay of local, regional, national and global contexts and dynamics in shaping education technology and science internationally.</p> <p>The <em>IJETS </em>is concerned with education in its broadest sense, including formal, informal and non-formal modes, as well as cognitive and metacognitive skills development. <em>IJETS</em> is primarily interested in studies that look at the relationship between education and teaching in different contexts globally.</p> <p>The <em>IJETS </em>welcomes papers from all prospective authors and especially from scholars who study education and teaching both theoretically and in practice all over the world. </p> Semra Mirici en-US International Journal of Education, Technology and Science 2757-9514 FORMAL ENGLISH WRITING AND ITS IMPORTANCE IN A STUDENT’S ACADEMIA <p>Communication, one of the necessities to carry out our daily activities consists of oral and written modes. While oral communication is widely acknowledged, the formal mode used in professional aspects of the written form is yet to receive the required attention and importance. Its importance in one’s professional career must be highlighted in one’s school curriculum, quoting its importance. Grammar is commonly stressed upon in language classes, but a deeper grasp of the language's structure is often missing. To effectively convey this idea, it is necessary to understand the student’s perspective regarding their idea of formal writing. With advancement of technology, changes in the practice of writing from paper to digital sources have been observed. With specialized courses being offered on online, the perspective of learning formal writing and its impact on student’s academia and career is aimed to be studied on to ensure effective teaching of formal writing.</p> Samrudh Devanahalli Bokkassam Binod Mishra Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Education, Technology and Science 2024-03-01 2024-03-01 4 1 1542 1556 COMMUNITY SERVICE LEARNING IN SENIOR SCHOOLS IN KENYA: LESSONS FROM RELATED EMPIRICAL STUDIES <p>A disconnect between schooling and field of work has contributed to high levels of youth unemployment. Introduction of Community Service Learning (CSL) is to ensure learners acquire not only employability skills but also values essential in addressing the needs in the community. This article reviewed literature related to parental engagement in implementation of competency based curriculum in Kenya. The study was grounded on a desktop design that reviewed findings reported in peer reviewed journals together with PWPER (2023) report on transforming education, training and research for sustainable development in Kenya. The review specifically focussed on pitfalls that limit effective parental engagement. The results show that limitations to effective parental engagement mainly relate to stakeholder sensitization, resource mobilization and stakeholder attitudes. Moreover, these challenges also threaten to derail effective implementation of CSL in senior schools once it commences in 2026. The article thus proposes adoption of Dingili’s (2022) Transmission, Transactional and Reflection model in order to ensure effective implementation of CSL.</p> Rodgers Dingili Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Education, Technology and Science 2024-03-01 2024-03-01 4 1 1557 1575 A PROPOSED TEACHER RETOOLING PROGRAM IN ROBOTICS FOR THE BASIC EDUCATION TEACHERS IN JAPAN <p>Japan's Robotics curriculum is embedded in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) based programs designed to create a better living. This retooling program is designed as a 3-week program for Basic Education Teachers of the Department of Education in the Philippines. The program will be grounded on observing and making prototype, accurate, useful and reliable programs. This retooling program will be conducted in Japan. As such, Japan is known as one of the world's leading robotics industries, has a long history of robotics research, and has a robust research network in universities and industries. The retooling program will encourage, inspire, and enhance not only the robotics curriculum in the school level, division level, moreover, this might help our country have foresight on future programs that will enhance the Philippine’s current curriculum.</p> Renelle Caraig Michelle Vanessa Kuhonta Min Maw Tun Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Education, Technology and Science 2024-03-01 2024-03-01 4 1 1576 1595 DEVELOPMENT OF THE SOCIAL STUDIES COURSE ATTITUDE SCALE <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">This research is a scale development study to measure students' attitudes towards social studies course. The study group comprised of 7th grade students studying in Gaziantep in the first semester of the 2023-2024 academic year. Initially, an item pool consisted of 50 items was created for the scale. Expert opinion was obtained to verify the face and content validity of the items. According to the experts' opinions, the content validity ratio values for the items were calculated using the Lawshe (1975) technique. Since the calculations proved that all 50 items ensured the content validity, all items included in the scale. Exploratory factor analysis was performed for the construct validity, and then the scale was applied to 429 students. In the next stage, the communality values for each item were calculated and 15 items with communality value below .45 were removed from the scale. Then, factor load, eigenvalue, variance and cumulative variance values analyses were carried out for the remaining 35 items and a 5-factor structure was obtained. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to check the compatibility among the items. It was found that the confirmatory factor fit index values of the items were in accordance with the reference range. Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficient was also calculated for the overall scale and for each factor. According to the findings, this scale is said to be quite reliable consisting of 35 items with a 5-point Likert type and measures 5 sub-dimensions, which can be used to measure students' attitudes towards social studies course</span></p> Ceylan Akcan Selman Ablak Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Education, Technology and Science 2024-03-01 2024-03-01 4 1 1596 1618 THE TEACHER GUIDED 4-K CLUB ACTIVITIES UNDERTAKEN WITHIN THE SCHOOL FARM FOR THE ACQUISITION OF THE CORE COMPETENCIES IN AGRICULTURE SUBJECT AT UPPER PRIMARY SCHOOL IN KENYA <p>Competency based agriculture subject at upper primary should be taught practically so as to enable learners to master the required core competencies. Among ways which teachers of agriculture at upper primary would ensure practical implementation of agriculture subject curriculum is through use of the 4-K Club activities conducted within the school farm. However, paucity of information on how agriculture teachers can use the 4-K Club activities in teaching to help learners master core competencies agriculture subject exists. It’s upon this research gap therefore that this study sought to document the teacher-guided 4-K Club activities undertaken within the school farm for the acquisition of the core competencies in agriculture subject at upper primary. This study focused on documenting acquisition communication and collaboration and critical thinking and problem solving competencies. Descriptive survey research design was employed in the study. Table by Krejice and Morgan was used to obtain a sample size of 108 teachers from schools with either active or inactive 4-K Clubs in Makindu sub-county. Descriptive statistics were used in data analysis where Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used. This study found out that various teacher-guided 4-K Club activities have significant contribution to the acquisition of communication and collaboration and critical thinking and problem solving competencies.</p> Robert Kyalo Ndambuki Miriam Nthenya Kyule Jacob J. Konyango Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Education, Technology and Science 2024-03-01 2024-03-01 4 1 1619 1638 APPLICATION OF AUGMENTED REALITY TECHNOLOGY IN PEDAGOGIC PERSPECTIVE OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL EDUCATION <p><a href=";sort=1&amp;ftyp=all&amp;fgrp=all&amp;fyrs=all">Virtual Reality</a>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<a href=";sort=1&amp;ftyp=all&amp;fgrp=all&amp;fyrs=all">Augmented Reality</a>&nbsp;are immersive technologies that integrate virtual and real-world elements. These technologies have been used to help and improve human capabilities in many fields. Virtual and augmented systems are used in various educational situations. This study presents a literature review on the application of Augmented Reality technology to students at the basic education level. Articles that were synthesized from 2013 to 2023 indexed by Google Scholar were 9 articles. Using qualitative content analysis, this study attempts to answer this question; how does the Pedagogic Perspective in elementary school education apply Augmented Reality?</p> Omid Tahmasebi Boldaji Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Education, Technology and Science 2024-03-01 2024-03-01 4 1 1639 1651 BEYOND ACCESS: FACTORS INFLUENCING STUDENTS' UTILIZATION OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGIES AT SELECTED HIGH SCHOOLS IN ADDIS ABABA – A SURVEY ANALYSIS <p>Relevant studies showed the positive influence educational technologies have on students' <br>academic experience. This study examined how students in Addis Ababa's public, private, and <br>international high schools use Educational Technologies to improve their academics. Thirty <br>random schools were surveyed, and the collected data were analyzed using descriptive, <br>regression, and inferential statistics to address the objectives of the study. The online survey had <br>more than a thousand views per school, showing high accessibility of both the internet and <br>devices. Most of the respondents used educational technologies. 18.4% of students who didn’t <br>use edtech attributed it to a lack of guidance from their teachers. In Ethiopia and similar <br>countries, many studies, including this one, found that teachers were not using educational <br>technologies.</p> <p><br>This study confirmed that using Edtech increased academic motivation. Interestingly, <br>educational technologies were used equally irrespective of whether students found their daily <br>lessons “applicable” or not. This contradicted other studies, which found that the use of elearning in developing countries was significantly affected by their perceived utility. Similarly, <br>there were only a few significant advantages or disadvantages of enrolling in any of the three <br>high school categories. For instance, students learning in public schools showed a significant <br>increase in social media use while international high school students got significantly better <br>guidance on using edtech compared to their public counterparts.</p> Anteneh Yimmam Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Education, Technology and Science 2024-03-01 2024-03-01 4 1 1652 1674 THE CHALLENGES ENCOUNTERED IN IMPLEMENTING THE COMPETENCY-BASED CURRICULUM WITHIN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KENYA <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>This study investigated challenges faced by teachers in implementing Competency-Based Curriculum (CBC) at the junior secondary school level in Kenya. The study utilized a mixed method cross-sectional survey involving 940 junior secondary school teachers in Nyeri County, Kenya. the study addressed the identification of challenges faced by JSS teachers, assessed the prevalence of identified challenges at the junior secondary level in Kenya and suggested proposals for addressing CBC implementation challenges. Findings highlighted significant challenges including the lack of administrative support (88.7%), resource deficiencies (85.4%), inadequate access to teaching technologies (85.2%), teacher expertise gaps (87.8%), and challenges in assessing learning outcomes effectively (69.5%). Qualitative insights shed more light on concerns such as resource shortages, teacher welfare issues, curriculum complexities, and geographic disparities. The study's significance lies in advocating for administrative reforms, enhanced teacher support, comprehensive training programs aligned with CBC standards, and strategic interventions like integrating JSS within secondary schools, addressing resource scarcities, and prioritizing comprehensive teacher training to elevate pedagogical practices. These findings underscore the urgent need for collaborative efforts, curriculum revisions, and innovative assessments to ensure the successful implementation of CBC at the JSS level in Kenya, urging future research to explore tailored training efficacy, technology integration, and innovative teaching methodologies to enhance CBC implementation effectiveness.</p> Charles Gichurur Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Education, Technology and Science 2024-03-01 2024-03-01 4 1 1675 1692 COMMERCIALIZATION AND COMMUNITY-BUILDING IN EXAM-CENTRIC EDUCATION ON YOUTUBE: AN ANALYSIS OF TURKEY'S LEADING EDUCATIONAL CHANNELS <div> <p class="IJCI-Abstract-Text"><span lang="EN-US">The rise of digital platforms has ushered in a new era for educational delivery, with YouTube emerging as a significant player. This study provides a critical analysis of Turkish-language educational channels on YouTube, with a particular focus on their role in subject matter teaching for varying educational levels. We delve into the structure, operational dynamics, and content production approaches of these channels to offer empirical insights into their nature within the Turkish educational landscape. Employing document analysis method, this study scrutinized 17 prominent channels, identified through their high viewer engagement and subject matter teaching focus, to compile the data set. We analyzed these channels through inductive thematic content analysis approach. The findings offer a view of the channels' quantitative metrics, educational levels and subjects, content focus, purpose and organization, accessibility and interaction features, media and material usage, and viewer-directed links. Our discussion synthesizes these findings under four themes: YouTube's emergence as a potential alternative to in-person teaching, the role of community building in digital education, the prevalence of exam-centric educational engagement, and the nuanced implications of commercialization in online educational content. </span></p> </div> Leman Konukoğlu Mehmet Fatih Özmantar Gülay Agaç Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Education, Technology and Science 2024-03-01 2024-03-01 4 1 1693 1717 The RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SELECTED SCHOOL FARM FACTORS AND THE ACQUISITION OF AGRICULTURAL SKILLS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN MALAVA SUB-COUNTY, KAKAMEGA COUNTY, KENYA <p>One of the objectives of teaching Agriculture at the secondary school level is to equip learners with practical agricultural skills as it is deemed as one of the most effective solution to unemployment and food insecurity. The school farm facility provides an opportunity for the learners to put into practice the theoretical concepts learned in the classroom. This study aimed at establishing the relationship between selected school farm factors and the acquisition of agricultural skills among secondary school students in Malava Sub-County, Kakamega County, Kenya. The school farm factors were; availability, level of, accessibility, adequacy and utilization. Correlational research design was adopted. A sample size of 180 respondents which comprised of 165 form three Agriculture students and 15 teachers of Agriculture from 15 schools participated in this study. Questionnaires and an observation guide were used as the data collection tools. Chi-square test of independence was used to analyze the findings of this study aided by the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 26. The study established that among the school farm factors, only level of utilization and level of adequacy have a significant relationship to the level of skill acquisition among the students</p> Robert Recha Miriam Kyule Lydia Nkatha Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Education, Technology and Science 2024-03-01 2024-03-01 4 1 1718 1735 THE EXTENT OF INCULCATING COMPETENCIES IN TEACHING COMPETENCE-BASED GRADE FOUR AGRICULTURE AMONG PUBLIC PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN NJORO SUB-COUNTY OF KENYA <p>This study aims to evaluate the integration of Competence-Based Grade Four Agriculture teaching competencies in public primary schools within Noro Sub-County, Kenya, examining prevalent teaching methodologies and their alignment with competence-based objectives. Data from 96 public primary schools in Njoro Sub-County were collected via a census method. A survey questionnaire, assessing teaching practices aligned with competence-based objectives, was employed. Data reliability was confirmed (Cronbach's Alpha = 0.743). Descriptive statistics using SPSS version 25 analyzed the data. Commonly used teaching approaches included question-and-answer sessions (Mostly used: 47.9%), discussions (Mostly used: 59.4%), and group work (Mostly used: 54.2%). These aimed to develop effective communication, collaboration, and critical thinking skills. However, infrequent utilization was observed in project-based learning (Mostly used: 30.1%), problem-solving approaches (Mostly used: 45.2%), ICT tools (Mostly used: 38.7%), and agricultural field trips (Mostly used: 9.4%). While traditional methods dominated, lesser usage of project-based learning, problem-solving approaches, ICT tools, and agricultural field trips might hinder comprehensive competency development. Diversifying teaching methods aligned with Competence-Based Education principles is crucial for holistic competency development. Enhancing the utilization of project-based learning, problem-solving methodologies, ICT tools, and agricultural field trips is imperative to strengthen students' competencies. A balanced integration of diverse teaching approaches aligned with CBE principles should be advocated. The study emphasizes the need to diversify teaching methodologies for holistic competency development, crucial for students' success in the agricultural sector. These findings have implications for policy-making to enrich teaching practices in agricultural education.</p> Alex Karani Miriam Kyule Joel Ng'eno Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Education, Technology and Science 2024-03-01 2024-03-01 4 1 1736 1759 COURSE ENHANCEMENT PROCEDURE BY REFLECTIVE CYCLE PRACTICE <p>Student numbers have increased by 15% over the last five years in London. Average deal size from 2020–2022 is 43% higher than other business sectors at 30,000 sq ft. Specialist sector clusters can develop and be enhanced by the expansion of the higher education sector. The education sector is responsible of producing skilled learners and practitioners for society. Reflective or process cycles, within educational activities, have the potential to enhance the quality of a course. The reflective cycle methodology in education is employed, applied, and validated to improve the quality of an educational procedure. Experimental practices demonstrate that the application of this process leads to enhanced education. This methodology is applied and validated in the context of an innovative individual research project. Quality assurance aims to confirm success, and various modes have been utilised in institutes to validate this success.</p> <p>This paper focuses on the application of the reflective cycle in a real-world setting, specifically a higher education master’s course, and explores two models of quality assurance for assessing educational enhancement. The results indicate that the quality assurance process favours the outcomes of the process cycle, despite being a complex and time-consuming procedure. It could be improved by adopting a simpler and more efficient model to elucidate professional achievements further. A “comprehensive and professional department“ is an efficient alternative to a series of sections with low proficiency.</p> Amir Shahneh Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Education, Technology and Science 2024-03-01 2024-03-01 4 1 1760 1775 ATTITUDES OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS TOWARDS SPEAKING AND LEARNING THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE <p>Attitudes are one of the success factors in speaking and learning the English language. The study aims to determine the attitudes of high school students towards speaking and learning the English language. The study utilized a descriptive-correlational design. There were 266 high school students enrolled in public secondary high school selected through a stratified and systematic sampling techniques. The study utilized an adopted survey questionnaire from Canceran and Temporal (2020) and Al Noursi (2013). Findings revealed that students realized speaking in English is important for their future job. Additionally, realizing the importance of learning English highly fostered the interest of high school students. Thus, the study revealed that high school students have a positive attitude toward speaking and learning the English language. Also, findings revealed that there is a negligible correlation between speaking attitudes and learning attitudes of high school students towards the English language. Furthermore, the study revealed that there is no significant relationship between the attitudes of high school students towards speaking and learning the English language. This indicated that the speaking and learning attitudes of the high school students had no relevance towards the English language. The study suggests that school may provide co-curricular English activities and language -related programs that will make the students improve and be interested in English, thus, providing fun learning English activities will make the students more positive and comfortable to study with.</p> Jyca Lastima Adelfa Ando Renilo Depaz Gian Laurence Serdoncillo Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Education, Technology and Science 2024-03-01 2024-03-01 4 1 1776 1792